Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020. A mobile phone is a part of our lives. But I’m sure you’re curious minds have always been struck by such questions as how a mobile phone makes a call, and why there are different generations of mobile communications? (upbeat music) Let’s explore the technologybehind mobile communications. https://worldgraphics20.com/2020/09/25/10-best-beauty-tips-in-winter-you-use-your-own-face-skin/

When you speak on your phone, your voice is picked up byyour phone’s microphone. The microphone turns yourvoice into a digital signal with the help of MEMS sensor and IC. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

The digital signal contains your voice in the form of zeros and ones. An antenna inside the phonereceives these zeros and ones and transmits them in theform of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic wavestransmit the zeros and ones by altering the wave characteristics, such as the amplitude, frequency, phase, or combinations of these. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

For example, in the case of frequency, zero and one are transmitted by using low and highfrequencies respectively. So, if you could find a way to transmit these electromagnetic waves to your friend’s phone, you would be able to establish a call.

However, electromagnetic waves are incapable of traveling long distances. They lose their strengthdue to the presence of physical objects, electrical equipment, and some environmental factors. In fact, if there were no such issues, even then, electromagnetic waveswould not carry on forever, due to the Earth’s curved structure. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

To overcome these issues,cell towers were introduced, using the concept of cellular technology. In cellular technology, a geographic area isdivided into hexagonal cells with each cell having itsown tower and frequency slot.

Generally, these cell towersare connected through wires, or more specifically,optical fiber cables. These optical fiber cable sare laid under the ground or the ocean, to provide national orinternational connectivity.

The electromagnetic wavesproduced by your phone are picked up by the tower in your cell and convert them into highfrequency light pulses. These light pulses are carriedto the base transceiver box, located at the base of the tower for further signal processing, After processing, yourvoice signal is routed towards the destination tower. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

Upon receiving the pulses, the destination tower radiates it outwards in the form of electromagnetic waves, and your friend’s phonethen receives the signal. This signal undergoes a reverse process, and your friend hears your voice. So, it’s true that mobile communications are not entirely wireless, they do use a wired medium too.

This is how mobilecommunications are carried out. However, there was a big issue that we intentionally left unanswered. Mobile communication is only successful when your tower transfers thesignal to your friends tower. But how does your tower know in which cell tower areayour friend is located? Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

Well, for this process,the cell tower gets help from something called amobile switching center. The MSC is the central pointof a group of cell towers. Before moving further, let’s explain moreinformation about the MSC. When you purchase a SIM card, all the subscription information is registered in a specified MSC.

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

This MSC will be your home MSC. The home MSC stores informationsuch as service plans, your current location,and your activity status. If you move outside therange of your home MSC, the new MSC, which serves you instead, is known as a foreign MSC. As you enter a foreign MSC region, it communicates with your home MSC. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

In short, your home MSC always knows which MSC area you are in. To understand in which celllocation the subscriber is within the MSE area, the MSC uses a few techniques. One way is to updatethe subscriber location after a certain period. When the phone crosses apredefined number of towers, the location update is again done. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

The last one of these iswhen the phone is turned on. Let’s try to understandall of these procedures with an example. Suppose, Emma wants to call John. When Emma dials John’s number, the call request arrivesat Emma’s home MSC. Upon receiving John’s number, the request will beforwarded to John’s home MSC.

Now, John’s MSC checksfor his current MSC. If John is in his home MSC, the call requests will be immediately sent to his current cell location, and it checks whether Johnis engaged on another call, or if his mobile is switched off. If everything is positive,John’s phone rings, and the call will be connected. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

However, if John is not in his home MSC, John’s home MSC simplyforwards the call request to the foreign MSC. The foreign MSC will follow the previouslyexplained procedure to locate John’s phone, and will then establish the call. Now, let’s discuss whythe frequency spectrum is quite important inmobile phone communications.

To transfer zeros and onesin digital communication, each subscriber isallocated a frequency range. However, the frequency spectrum available for cellular communicationsis quite limited, and there are billions of subscribers. This issue is solved withthe help of two technologies, one frequency slot distribution, and two, multiple access technique. In the first technique, different frequency slotsare carefully allocated to different cell towers. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

In the multiple access technique, this frequency slot isefficiently distributed amongst all the activeusers in the cell area. Now, the big question. Why are there different generations of mobile phone technologies? 1G originally allowedusers, for the first time, to carry a phone withouta cable attached to it. But 1G suffered from two major problems.

The first problem was thatthe wireless transmission was in an analog format. Analog signals that are easilyaltered by external sources. So, it provided poor voicequality and poor security. Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020.

The second problem was that it used the frequency divisionmultiple access technique, which used the availablespectrum in an inefficient way. These factors paved the wayfor the second generation of mobile communications, 2G used digital multiple accesstechnologies, namely TDMA, or CDMA technology.

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

The second generation also introduced a revolutionarydata service, SMS, and internet browsing. 3G technology was focused on giving a higher data transfer speed. It used a WCD multiple access technique, along with an increase in bandwidth.

To achieve this, the 3G speed of two Mbps allowed the transfer of data for uses such as GPS, videos,voice calls, et cetera. 3G was a huge step in the transformation of the basic phone to a smartphone. Next came 4G, which achievedspeeds of 20 to 100 Mbps.

This was suitable for highresolution movies and television. This higher speed was made possible due to the OFD multiple access technology, and MIMO tech nology. MIMO uses multipletransmitter receiver antennas inside both the mobilephone and the towers.

The next generation ofmobile communication, 5G, to be rolled out soon, will use enhanced MIMOtechnology and millimeter waves. It will provide seamless connectivity to support the internet of things, such as driverless cars and smart homes. Would you like to learnhow a touchscreen works? Please check out this video. Please don’t forget tosubscribe to Learn Engineering, and your support atpatreon.com is invaluable.

Antennas are widely used in the field of telecommunications, and we have already seenmany applications for them in this video series. Antennas receive an electromagnetic wave and convert it to an electric signal, or receive an electric signal and radiate it as an electromagnetic wave.

In this video, we are goingto look at the science behind antennas. We have an electric signal, so how do we convert it toan electromagnetic wave? You might have a simpleanswer in your mind.

That is to use a closed conductor and with the help of the principle of electromagnetic induction, you will be able to producea fluctuating magnetic field and an electric field around it. However, this fluctuatingfield around the source is of no use in transmitting signals. The electromagnetic fieldhere does not propagate, instead, it just fluctuatesaround the source.

In an antenna, the electromagnetic waves need to be separated from the source and they should propagate. Before looking at how an antenna is made, let’s understand the physicsbehind the wave separation.

Consider one positiveand one negative charge placed a distance apart. This arrangement is known as a dipole, and they obviously producean electric field as shown. Now, assume that these chargesare oscillating as shown, at the midpoint of their path, the velocity will be at the maximum and at the ends of their pathsthe velocity will be zero.

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

The charged particles undergocontinuous acceleration and deceleration due tothis velocity variation. The challenge now is to find out how the electric fieldvaries due to this movement. Let’s concentrate on onlyone electric field line.

The wavefront formed at time zero expands and is deformed as shown after one eighth of a time period. This is surprising. You might’ve expected asimple electric field as shown at this location.

Why has the electric field stretched and formed a field like this? This is because the accelerating or decelerating chargesproduce an electric field with some memory effects. The old electric fielddoes not easily adjust to the new condition.

We need to spend some time tounderstand this memory effect of the electric field or kinkgeneration of accelerating or decelerating charges. We will discuss thisinteresting topic in more detail in a separate video.

If we continue our analysisin the same manner, we can see that at onequarter of a time period, the wavefront ends meet at a single point. After this, the separation and propagation of the Wavefront happens. Please note that thisvarying electric field will automatically generatea varying magnetic field perpendicular to it.

If you draw electricfield intensity variation with the distance, you cansee that the wave propagation is sinusoidal in nature. It is interesting to note that the wavelength of thepropagation so produced is exactly double that ofthe length of the dipole.

We will come back to this point later. This is exactly whatwe need in an antenna. In short, we can make an antenna if we can make an arrangementfor oscillating the positive and negative charges. In practice, the productionof such an oscillating charge, is very easy.

Take a conducting rodwith a bend in its center, and apply a voltage signal at the center. Assume this is thesignal you have applied, a time-varying voltage signal. Consider the case at time zero.

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

Due to the effect of the voltage, the electrons will be displacedfrom the right of the dipole and will be accumulated on the left. This means the other endwhich has lost electrons automatically becomes positively charged.

This arrangement hascreated the same effect as the previous dipole charge case, that is positive and negativecharges at the end of a wire. With the variation of voltage with time, the positive and negativecharges will shuttle to and fro.

The simple dipole antenna alsoproduces the same phenomenon we saw in the previous sectionand wave propagation occurs. We have now seen how theantenna works as a transmitter. The frequency of the transmitted signal will be the same as the frequency of the applied voltage signal.

Since the propagation travelsat the speed of light, we can easily calculate thewavelength of the propagation. For perfect transmission, the length of the antenna shouldbe half of the wavelength. The operation of the antenna is reversible and it can work as a receiver if a propagatingelectromagnetic field hits it.

Let’s see this phenomenon in detail. Take the same antenna againand apply an electric field. At this instant, the electrons will accumulate at one end of the rod. This is the same as an electric dipole. As the applied electric field varies, the positive and negative charges accumulate at the other ends.

The varying charge accumulation means a varying electric voltage signal is produced at the center of the antenna. This voltage signal is the output when the antenna works as a receiver. The frequency of the output voltage signal is the same as the frequencyof the receiving EM wave.

It is clear from theelectric field configuration that for perfect reception, the size of the antenna shouldbe half of the wavelength. In all these discussions, we have seen that theantenna is an open circuit. Now let’s see a few practicalantennas and how they work.

In the past, dipole antennaswere used for TV reception. The colored bar acts as adipole and receives the signal. A reflector and director are also needed in this kind of antenna to focus the signal on the dipole. This complete structure isknown as a Yagi-Uda antenna.

The dipole antenna convertedthe received signal into electrical signals,and these electrical signals were carried by coaxialcable to the television unit. Nowadays we have movedto dish TV antennas.

These consists of two main components, a parabolic shaped reflector and the low-noise block downconverter. The parabolic dish receiveselectromagnetic signals from the satellite andfocuses them onto the LNBF. The shape of the parabolicis very specifically and accurately designed. The LNBF is made up of a feedhorn, a waveguide, a PCB, and a probe.

In this animation, you cansee how the incoming signals are focused onto the probe viathe feedhorn and waveguide. At the probe, voltage is induced as we saw in the simple dipole case. The voltage signal sogenerated is fed to a PCB for signal processing such as filtration, conversion from high to lowfrequency and amplification.

Top 14 Mobile Trends That Are Dominating 2020

After signal processing,these electrical signals are carried down to the television unit through a coaxial cable. If you open up an LNB, you will most probably findtwo probes instead of one.

The second probe beingperpendicular to the first one. The two probe arrangementmeans the available spectrum can be used twice by sending the waveswith either horizontal or vertical polarization. One probe detects thehorizontally polarized signal and the other, thevertically polarized signal.

The cell phone in your hand uses a completelydifferent type of antenna called a patch antenna. A patch antenna consists ofa metallic patch or strip placed on a ground plane with a piece of dielectricmaterial in between. Here, the metallic patchacts as a radiating element.

The length of the metal patch should be half of the wavelength for proper transmission and reception. Please note that thedescription of the patch antenna we explained here is very basic. Please show your support byclicking the support button, and thank you for watching the video.

In an antenna, the electromagnetic waves need to be separated from the source and they should propagate. Before looking at how an antenna is made, let’s understand the physicsbehind the wave separation.

That is to use a closed conductor and with the help of the principle of electromagnetic induction, you will be able to producea fluctuating magnetic field and an electric field around it. However, this fluctuatingfield around the source is of no use in transmitting signals. The electromagnetic fieldhere does not propagate, instead, it just fluctuatesaround the source.

To transfer zeros and onesin digital communication, each subscriber isallocated a frequency range. However, the frequency spectrum available for cellular communicationsis quite limited, and there are billions of subscribers. This issue is solved withthe help of two technologies, one frequency slot distribution, and two, multiple access technique. In the first technique, different frequency slotsare carefully allocated to different cell towers.

However, electromagnetic waves are incapable of traveling long distances. They lose their strengthdue to the presence of physical objects, electrical equipment, and some environmental factors. In fact, if there were no such issues, even then, electromagnetic waveswould not carry on forever, due to the Earth’s curved structure.

Well, for this process,the cell tower gets help from something called amobile switching center. The MSC is the central pointof a group of cell towers. Before moving further, let’s explain moreinformation about the MSC. When you purchase a SIM card, all the subscription information is registered in a specified MSC.

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