Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020. A mobile phone is a part of our lives. But I’m sure you’re curious minds have always been struck by such questions as how a mobile phone makes a call, and why there are different generations of mobile communications?
(upbeat music) Let’s explore the technologybehind mobile communications. When you speak on your phone, your voice is picked up byyour phone’s microphone. The microphone turns yourvoice into a digital signal with the help of MEMS sensor and IC. http://technology
The digital signal contains your voice in the form of zeros and ones. An antenna inside the phonereceives these zeros and ones and transmits them in theform of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic wavestransmit the zeros and ones by altering the wave characteristics, such as the amplitude, frequency, phase, or combinations of these. https://worldgraphics20.com/2020/09/30/top-14-mobile-trends-that-are-dominating-2020/
For example, in the case of frequency, zero and one are transmitted by using low and highfrequencies respectively. So, if you could find a way to transmit these electromagnetic waves to your friend’s phone, you would be able to establish a call. However, electromagnetic waves are incapable of traveling long distances. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
They lose their strengthdue to the presence of physical objects, electrical equipment, and some environmental factors. In fact, if there were no such issues, even then, electromagnetic waveswould not carry on forever, due to the Earth’s curved structure. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
To overcome these issues,cell towers were introduced, using the concept of cellular technology. In cellular technology, a geographic area isdivided into hexagonal cells with each cell having itsown tower and frequency slot. Generally, these cell towersare connected through wires, or more specifically,optical fiber cables. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
These optical fiber cablesare laid under the ground or the ocean, to provide national orinternational connectivity. The electromagnetic wavesproduced by your phone are picked up by the tower in your cell and convert them into highfrequency light pulses. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
These light pulses are carriedto the base transceiver box, located at the base of the tower for further signal processing, After processing, yourvoice signal is routed towards the destination tower. Upon receiving the pulses, the destination tower radiates it outwards in the form of electromagnetic waves, and your friend’s phonethen receives the signal. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
This signal undergoes a reverse process, and your friend hears your voice. So, it’s true that mobile communications are not entirely wireless, they do use a wired medium too. This is how mobilecommunications are carried out. However, there was a big issue that we intentionally left unanswered. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
Mobile communication is only successful when your tower transfers thesignal to your friends tower. But how does your tower know in which cell tower areayour friend is located? Well, for this process,the cell tower gets help from something called amobile switching center.
The MSC is the central pointof a group of cell towers. Before moving further, let’s explain moreinformation about the MSC. When you purchase a SIM card, all the subscription information is registered in a specified MSC. This MSC will be your home MSC. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
The home MSC stores informationsuch as service plans, your current location,and your activity status. If you move outside therange of your home MSC, the new MSC, which serves you instead, is known as a foreign MSC. As you enter a foreign MSC region, it communicates with your home MSC. In short, your home MSC always knows which MSC area you are in.
To understand in which celllocation the subscriber is within the MSE area, the MSC uses a few techniques. One way is to updatethe subscriber location after a certain period. When the phone crosses apredefined number of towers, the location update is again done. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020
The last one of these iswhen the phone is turned on. Let’s try to understandall of these procedures with an example. Suppose, Emma wants to call John. When Emma dials John’s number, the call request arrivesat Emma’s home MSC. Upon receiving John’s number, the request will beforwarded to John’s home MSC. Now, John’s MSC checksfor his current MSC.
If John is in his home MSC, the call requests will be immediately sent to his current cell location, and it checks whether Johnis engaged on another call, or if his mobile is switched off. If everything is positive,John’s phone rings, and the call will be connected. However, if John is not in his home MSC, John’s home MSC simplyforwards the call request to the foreign MSC. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
The foreign MSC will follow the previouslyexplained procedure to locate John’s phone, and will then establish the call. Now, let’s discuss whythe frequency spectrum is quite important inmobile phone communications.
To transfer zeros and onesin digital communication, each subscriber isallocated a frequency range. However, the frequency spectrum available for cellular communicationsis quite limited, and there are billions of subscribers. This issue is solved withthe help of two technologies, one frequency slot distribution, and two, multiple access technique. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
In the first technique, different frequency slotsare carefully allocated to different cell towers. In the multiple access technique, this frequency slot isefficiently distributed amongst all the activeusers in the cell area. Now, the big question.
Why are there different generations of mobile phone technologies? 1G originally allowedusers, for the first time, to carry a phone withouta cable attached to it. But 1G suffered from two major problems. The first problem was thatthe wireless transmission was in an analog format. Analog signals that are easilyaltered by external sources.
So, it provided poor voicequality and poor security. The second problem was that it used the frequency divisionmultiple access technique, which used the availablespectrum in an inefficient way. These factors paved the wayfor the second generation of mobile communications, 2G used digital multiple accesstechnologies, namely TDMA, or CDMA technology. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
The second generation also introduced a revolutionarydata service, SMS, and internet browsing. 3G technology was focused on giving a higher data transfer speed. It used a WCD multiple access technique, along with an increase in bandwidth.
To achieve this, the 3G speed of two Mbps allowed the transfer of data for uses such as GPS, videos,voice calls, et cetera. 3G was a huge step in the transformation of the basic phone to a smartphone. Next came 4G, which achievedspeeds of 20 to 100 Mbps. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
This was suitable for highresolution movies and television. This higher speed was made possible due to the OFD multiple access technology, and MIMO technology. MIMO uses multipletransmitter receiver antennas inside both the mobilephone and the towers.
The next generation ofmobile communication, 5G, to be rolled out soon, will use enhanced MIMOtechnology and millimeter waves. It will provide seamless connectivity to support the internet of things, such as driverless cars and smart homes. Would you like to learnhow a touchscreen works? Please check out this video. Please don’t forget tosubscribe to Learn Engineering, and your support atpatreon.com is invaluable. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
As a single parent, Vi Thi Van’s family is one of the poor households in the locality. Each month, she receives VND 270,000 ($12) from the state’s social assistance. Under the previous payment model, the allowance was only distributed by local officials on one to two fixed days per month.
However, due to her busy work, Van sometimes cannot come on those days. The allowance is given on only 2 fixed days per month. If I have time, I can come down there to take it, but if I am too busy, I will have to wait until next month to take it. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020
The commune officials also reminded me that I had to come to get it in time Not only the people, but also local officials who directly participate in the payment process find it problematic Before, it cost us a lot of time and effort to pay allowance directly to beneficiaries in cash.
We had to make a payment list, call commune officials to get the money then pay it directly to the beneficiaries. After that, the provincial department of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs to check whether it had paid all the advanced amount or not if not, it must return the excess money to its account at the treasury. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
To address these issues, the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA), with the technical assistance of World Bank and financial support from Australia (Australian Aid), has implemented a pilot electronic payment system for more than 2,400 beneficiaries of the regular social assistance program in Quang Uyen.
Thach An districts in Cao Bang province where over 90% of its population are ethnic minorities. This pilot is aimed at helping the beneficiaries have direct access to payment service providers. People are assisted to open accounts and receive social allowance in a safe and efficient way. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
This also contributes to the government’s goal of making cashless payments The e-payment pilot via cellphone text message and transaction points of payment service providers is being implemented in Quang Yen District of Cao Bang Province.
The beneficiaries only need to bring their identification cards and phones to the nearest transaction point to be assisted to open an electronic payment account. Every month, the allowance will be transferred directly to their personal accounts and they will immediately receive a notification message to their registered phone number. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
To withdraw money, they do not have to go to the bank but only need to go to the payment agents in each commune In addition to the accuracy and promptness, this payment method allows beneficiaries to track their remaining balance or pay other services such as electricity, internet, telephone, or transfer money to relatives, etc. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
Cao Bang is a mountainous province with many ethnic minorities, so the people have little access to banking services. Therefore, the payment of social benefits via electronic system like this is very convenient and effective For the State Treasury, the approval process has been shortened from 2 days to immediate approval and the settlement process has been shortened from one month to immediately.
Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020
After receiving the message on my phone, I can withdraw money anytime I want. I just need to bring my phone and ID card for the staff to check the code then they will give me the money. I find it much more convenient. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
A cooler full of fish might not be the only thing anglers bring back from a trip to the lake. Unknowingly, they may also be transporting small aquatic “hitchhikers” that attach themselves to boats, motors ― and even fishing gear ― when moving between bodies of water.
Considerable research shows that aquatic invasive species can completely transform ecosystems by introducing disease, out-competing and eating native species, altering food webs, changing physical habitat, devastating water-delivery systems and damaging economies. Furthermore, once established, eradication of nuisance species is near impossible, and management can be extremely difficult and costly. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
Although preventative measures have been enacted to reduce their introduction and spread, such as mandatory watercraft inspections, educational programs and even dogs trained in sniffing out invasive species, these aquatic stowaways still manage to find their way into new water bodies around the country.
One of the many challenges is identifying how these species spread through human movement. A new University of Washington study uses passive data from a fishing technology company to model the movement of anglers and predict where aquatic invasives may be spreading. The findings were published Sept. 2 in the journal NeoBiota. Using mobile technology to predict invasive species transmission in 2020.
“Focusing on anglers allows us to look at a population that uses a wide range of gear on the water; therefore, they have the potential to move a very wide range of species,” said Rachel Fricke, a graduate student at the UW School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences. Fricke’s research on invasive species is a continuation of her undergraduate capstone project which she also completed at the school.
The researchers used data provided by ReelSonar, the Seattle-based developer of the pocket-sized fish finder iBobber. The iBobber syncs with an angler’s smart device and collects multiple pertinent data points, including fishing location. To date, over five million locations have been recorded from around the world.
“In the past, ecologists have done an incredible job extracting big datasets from the web without necessarily working with the organizations who collected the data in the first place,” said co-author Julian Olden, a professor of aquatic and fishery science. “This is to be expected, but I believe that real creativity in the future will come from more authentic collaborations where both ideas and products are co-generated.”
Previous studies relied on optional online forms, requiring anglers to log fishing trips from each location they visited. With ReelSonar’s passive data, these points are generated automatically, offering researchers an exciting opportunity to further understand where people are moving and when.
The authors specifically looked at location data in the United States and narrowed it down to identify individual trips made by anglers. By quantifying geographic patterns of fishing activities and assessing how these patterns change seasonally, the authors explored angler behavior (fishing frequency and distance traveled) between sites.
“We were predominantly interested in where people were fishing and the amount of time between their trips to different lakes,” said Fricke. “The length of time determines the types of species anglers unintentionally move, as each species has very different survival rates out of the water.”
The authors were also interested in the routes people were using to travel between fishing locations.
What they found was the vast majority of road distances traveled are over small spatial scales. Most anglers are staying near urban areas, but fishing multiple different lakes or rivers in a small radius over a short amount of time. The authors then focused on “invasion hubs,” water bodies that have many linkages via human movement to other nearby water bodies. The timeframe of these movements, which was mostly two days or fewer, fell well within the out-of-water survival threshold for the six invasive species identified in the study.
“Boiled down, people are moving a lot and they’re moving quickly from one place to the next, which has the potential to move a number of different invasive species,” said Fricke. “I don’t think we need to change the preventative measures that we use in light of this data, but it does enable us to better locate those preventative measures in space and time.”
Identifying highly trafficked roads near invasion hubs can be valuable from a management perspective and can help influence where roadside inspection stations and educational signage are placed.
“If we see points in these data where invasion hubs exist and where resources are not being allocated, this gives managers the opportunity to identify and implement required boat cleaning and boat inspection stations in those locations,” said Fricke. “This kind of data offers a ripe opportunity to reassess where we’re enacting preventative measures and to be more strategic about where we do that.”More information: Rachel M. Fricke et al. A bobber’s perspective on angler-driven vectors of invasive species transmission, NeoBiota (2020). DOI: 10.3897/neobiota.60.54579
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